On 11-13 May 1948, Winston Churchill was in Norway to accept an honorary degree from Oslo University. He gave five speeches—University, City Hall, Storting (Norwegian Parliament) and two dinners. All five can be found in Churchill’s speech volume Europe Unite, or Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches 1897-1963. They offer six gems of Churchillian wisdom. I plan to add them to the upcoming new edition of Churchill by Himself, my book of quotations.Oslo Variations
Churchill had profound respect for the Italian 19th century democratic revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi, and once hoped to write his biography. But it is unlikely that his famous lines, "blood, toil, tears and sweat" were adapted by something Garibaldi said—they date back quite a bit farther.